Various methods for improving combustion efficiency?

From patent no. 6,851,413.....

"Over the years, there have been numerous attempts to increase fuel efficiency in internal combustion engines. Along with mechanical engine design changes, there have been attempts to further increase engine efficiency and reduce pollutant products by attacking the problem in the cylinder combustion by modifying the condition of the fuel supplied to the cylinder. One attempt has been to increase fuel atomization by utilizing higher fuel pressure and smaller orifice injection nozzles to achieve improved combustion due to the formation of smaller sized fuel droplets thus aiding evaporation. Another combustion improvement has been to control the fuel injection sequence in such applications as stratified charge injection. Success in reducing pollutants at their source, the combustion zone, has been limited and the emphasis by manufacturers, government and academia researching this problem, has concentrated on the exhaust system.

There have also been significant attempts to improve combustion efficiency of a fuel by treating various parts of the combustion process, the first is precombustion treatment of the fuel or air supply or both. The second is treatment within the combustion zone, and the third is exhaust pollutant treatment, such as improvements to the catalytic converter.

Precombustion Treatment

One of the first proposals for increasing engine efficiency was to preheat the fuel or fuel mixture before it entered the cylinder. U.S. Pat. No. 4,524,746 describes the use of a closed vaporizing chamber and heats and vaporizes fuel with an ultrasonic transducer.

U.S. Pat. No. 4,672,938 describes the use of fuel heating and a second fuel activation device to achieve hypergolic combustion.

U.S. Pat. No. 6,202,633 describes the use of a reaction chamber with heat and an electric potential to treat the fuel. One obvious disadvantage of preheating the fuel and/or fuel to air mixture, is the fact that less mass of combustibles will be transferred to the combustion chamber now that they are at higher temperatures. This will result in a reduction in horsepower for the same displacement volume engine.

Note that a common approach in Diesel engines of today, is the use of turbochargers with an air aftercooler to cool the compressed air which supplies more mass of air to facilitate combustion and increase engine horsepower.

Another early method attempting to increase engine efficiency dealt with treating the fuel with a magnetic field as it is supplied to the fuel/air stream to increase its combustibility. Reasoning behind this approach cited the successful molecular rearrangement by the magnetic treatment of water circulated within piping in the water treatment and chemical industry. These water magnetic treatment devices are used to prevent mineral scaling or remove mineral scale that builds up with time. These devices have been somewhat successful in replacing chemical treatment.

There are numerous devices relating to magnetic treatment of fuel lines claiming to obtain enhanced combustibility of the fuel supply and a reduction in pollutants. These devices are described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,572,145, 4,188,296 and 5,129,382, in which permanent magnets are attached to the fuel line prior to introduction of fuel into an air mixing duct. The mixture is then drawn into the combustion mixing zone of an internal combustion engine. These patents claim that molecular fuel agglomerates are reduced and free radical and ionized fuel components are produced in the fuel thereby enhancing combustion resulting in increased fuel mileage and engine horsepower.

Electric field treatment of fuels has also been proposed. The use of dielectric beads between electrodes to treat the flow through fuel is described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,373,494.

U.S. Pat. No. 5,167,782 describes a voltage being placed on a special metal composition which is in contact with the fuel.

The permanent magnets can be replaced with electromagnets as claimed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,052,139.

Still further treatment of the fuel feed is accomplished by the use of ultrasonic, UV, and IR radiation described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,401,089, 4,726,336 and 6,082,339, respectively.

Catalytic treatment of fuels or its combination with other devices has been described. U.S. Pat. No. 5,451,273 claims that a special cast alloy fuel filter will improve combustion efficiency by catalytic means.

U.S. Pat. No. 4,192,273 claims metal plates plated with a palladium catalyst being placed within the intake manifold to create turbulence and mix the catalyzed gases enhances combustion.

Turbulent flow of the fuel over several catalytic screens of different metals to catalytically condition the fuel is also described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,053,152.

A far infrared ray emitting device placed within the fuel line to aid combustion is described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,082,339.

Treatment of air or gaseous fuel mixtures by magnets for internal combustion engines, has also been described, with the object of reducing emissions in U.S. Pat. No. 6,178,953.

U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,572,145 and 4,188,296 also describe the treatment of air or air/fuel mixtures with magnets.

The combustion air supply can be treated with electric fields. There are a number of precombustion ionization devices that generate high strength electric fields to ionize air in the air supply. U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,977,543 and 5,487,874 are notable.

Means other than magnets or electric fields to treat fuel or air or air/fuel mixtures to increase engine efficiency are described in a significant number of United States patents. They apply combustion enhancing treatment either to the combustion air stream or to the fuel/air stream to increase fuel efficiency.

Enhancement mechanisms include IR and electromagnetic field energy as cited in U.S. Pat. No. 6,244,254.

High voltage ion generators are used to treat air in U.S. Pat. No. 5,977,716.

U.S. Pat. No. 6,264,899 claims the conversion to the hydroxyl radical and other radical species in the air stream, can be achieved by the use of primarily UV radiation and secondarily Corona discharge devices in the supply air stream.

Despite the numerous inventions addressing this problem, there still exists a need for improved enhancement of combustion.

Precombustion Treatment-Injector Nozzles

The pressure of the fuel supply to the fuel injectors has been increased over time in internal combustion engine development. The goal has been to produce smaller fuel droplets. Injection pressures for the Gasoline Direct Injection engine (GDI) are as much as ten times those of the present fuel/air intake systems.

Another method of heating fuel prior to the combustion chamber is located at the nozzle itself. U.S. Pat. No. 5,159,915 describes heating the complete injector by an electromagnetic coil that generates a fluctuating magnetic flux density. It also uses a magnetically sensitive material in the nozzle section to concentrate the heating magnetic field.

Another goal in fuel injection has been to charge the fuel droplets. U.S. Pat. No. 4,051,826 describes the fuel tube and injector nozzle being charged to a high electrical potential to charge the fuel droplets, conditioning the fuel droplets for efficient combustion.

U.S. Pat. No. 4,347,825 describes the use of high voltage to electrify fuel particles to prevent them from attaching to the oppositely charged surrounding walls of a fuel passage. It uses an electrode near the injector nozzle.

U.S. Pat. No. 6,305,363 uses an air assisted fuel injector that injects directly into the combustion chamber of a Direct Injection Engine. The air supplied to the injector is ozone enriched to assist in the combustion process.

Despite the numerous inventions addressing this problem, there still exists a need for improved enhancement of combustion.

In-Cylinder Combustion Enhancement

This category can be divided into two subcategories. The first is treatment that supplies combustion enhancing chemical compounds to the combustion zone such as ozone. The second are devices that apply combustion enhancing energy to the combustion chamber itself.

An early combustion enhancing compound that was added to internal combustion engines was water. Water injection has been used in internal combustion engines since the first decade of the century. The original purpose was for engine cooling. It was later shown to give octane improvement and was used in aircraft engines.

U.S. Pat. No. 4,018,192 describes injecting water directly into the combustion chamber through the spark plug opening to increase power and fuel economy.

U.S. Pat. No. 5,255,514 also describes using water vapor to increase engine efficiency.

U.S. Pat. No. 6,264,899 describes improving engine performance by adding the (--OH) radical obtained by treating a high water vapor/air stream with UV radiation or an electrical discharge device to improve combustion.

U.S. Pat. No. 4,308,844 describes using an ozone generator in the air supply to produce ozone and positively charged particles.

U.S. Pat. No. 5,913,809 describes an ionization field across the air flow path producing ozone for both the intake and exhaust systems. A UV light source could be substituted to ionize the oxygen in the air stream.

A method of irradiating inlet air by alpha-decay to transform by fission, a part of nitrogen in the air into monatomic oxygen, and monatomic hydrogen to reduce toxic components in the exhaust stream, is contained in U.S. Pat. No. 5,941,219.

The concept of adding energy directly to the combustion chamber is described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,983,871 where a laser beam is introduced within the cylinder to decrease the slow initial stage of laminar combustion, therefore improving the combustion process.

U.S. Pat. No. 4,176,637 has a high voltage electrode within the combustion chamber surrounding the fuel injector fuel stream to charge the fuel particles.

Despite the numerous inventions addressing this problem, there still exists a need for improved enhancement of combustion."

SEARCH the above patent numbers:

http://www.google.com/advanced_patent_search

like0

Comments

Various methods for improving combustion efficiency?

ssheen's picture

I sure hope you did not type all that in. :D

like0

Various methods for improving combustion efficiency?

E=mc2's picture

Pated from the patent.... :shock:

like0

Various methods for improving combustion efficiency?

Pinhead's picture

Pated, huh? :P

like0